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Full text of "[untitled] The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, (1895-10-01), pages 503-504"

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•desire of the departed that his sepulchre should not be violated. The 
Phrygian tombs were conceived to be temples and the dead to have 
either returned to God or to have became themselves deified. There 
is a notable absence however from the inscriptions of statements con- 
cerning the nature of the future life. The volume contains a map of 
S. W. Phrygia, but none of Phrygia as a whole. The index is 
doubtless to appear at the close of the whole work, but one for the 
separate volume also would be an aid to future students. 

George T. Purves. 

Otto Waser. Skylla unci Charybdis in der Literatur unci Kunst der 
Griechm und Riimer. 1894, 8vo., pp. 147. F. Schulthess, 

The author of this monograph has collected with great care and 
patience the available information concerning Skylla and Charybdis. 
As Skylla is by far the more interesting person — for Charybdis hardly 
arrives at the dignity of personality at all — the greater part of the 
book is devoted to her. The name Skylla, as also Charybdis, is 
derived from a " Semitic " source, i. e., from the Phoenicians, who were 
the teachers of the Greeks concerning the sea and its dangers. They 
sailed about Sicily and gave the names of Skylla and Charybdis to the 
dangerous points of the straits of Messina. So far Waser accepts the 
conclusions of other scholars, adding no new facts in defence of those 
conclusions. In her essence, Skylla is the personification of the sea 
and its dangers. This is shown by her genealogy. In the Odyssey, 
xu, 124, her mother is called Kpnrau's, but this is a mere epithet of 
Hekate (Ap. Rhod. iv. 828 f.). Other genealogies are discussed, but 
the conclusion is reached that Hekate-Krataiis and Phorkys were the 
real parents of Skylla. Her relations to Hekate, Gorgo, and Glau- 
kos are discussed at length, showing how she is at once a personifica- 
tion of the sea and a demon of death. Nearly all the so-called 
representations of Glaukos with Skylla are doubted or rejected. In 
some cases not Glaukos but Triton is represented. That the Skylla of 
Megara is confused with the terrible demon Skylla by late poets is 
mentioned, and the discussion of Skylla and Charybdis in literature 
closes with a series of notes or remarks on the passages in classical and 
patristic literature in which they are referred to. 

In the course of his discussion of Skylla and Charybdis in art, Waser 
comes to the satisfactory conclusion that Charybdis does not appear 
in art at all. Skylla, on the other hand, is represented many times 
and in different ways. Most frequently she has the head and trunk 
of a young woman, from about her waist spring the bodies, forelegs, 
and heads of beasts, and she ends in a fish's tail, or later in two such 


tails. The number of beasts varies from two to eight, and their char- 
acter is not always the same. Sometimes they partake of lupine or 
equine nature, but they are usually dogs, either two or three in num- 
ber. Nearly or quite all Etruscan figures which have been called 
Skylla are found to represent no person of Greek mythology, but an 
Etruscan demon. An enumeration of coin types and gems represent- 
ing Skylla is followed by a brief treatment of paintings and a discus- 
sion of fragments of a group of statuary. Parts of several replicas of 
this group exist. In addition to those mentioned by Farnell in the 
Joum. of Hell. Stud., 1891, p. 54 ff. (who gives references to earlier 
literature), fragments in the basement of the British Museum are dis- 
cussed (cf. Arch. Anz., 1866, p. 203). The group represented Skylla girt 
with sea-dogs brandishing in her right hand an oar, while her left 
seized a bearded man by the hair. Each of the dogs had seized one 
of the companions of Odysseus whose ship was indicated by a prow 
at the right of the group. The group existed in a bronze copy in the 
hippodrome at Constantinople if epigrams in the anthology can be 
trusted, but other replicas were numerous, for Themistios (71-cpi 4><A('as, 
p. 279 Dind.) speaks of seeing the statue of Skylla in many places. 
In this group Skylla did not end in fishy tails, but her lower parts 
appeared to be hidden in sea weed. In style the group was related to 
the Pergamene reliefs and the Laocoon group. An inscription found 
in Bargylia in Caria together with the fragments of the Skylla group 
in the British Museum bears the name of M«Aas 'Eppaio-Kov, and a Melas 
is known from an inscription in Thebes (Loewy, Inschr. gr. Bildh. No. 
148) dated between 371 and 240 b. c. As this Melas was not aTheban, 
Waser suggests that he may have been identical with the Melas of the 
Bargylia inscription, and perhaps the Skylla group was his work. 
But all that can be said about the style of the group points so strongly 
to the second century b. c, that this identification is highly improb- 
able. The monograph closes with a catalogue of representations of 
Skylla. Thirty vases, one lamp, twelve other reliefs, three figures in 
the round (one repeated three times on a tripod), and one mosaic are 
described. From this catalogue all representations discussed in the 
body of the work are excluded. This is unfortunate, as a complete 
catalogue would be convenient. The monograph can be recommended 
as a careful and, apparently at least, complete collection of material,, 
in the discussion of which the author shows both learning and good 
sense. Not much that is new is offered, nor is there much originality 
of speculation, but the subject is more exhaustively treated here than 
anywhere else, so far as I know, and the conclusions reached are in 
almost every instance perfectly sound. Harold N. Fowler.